:

, , , , , , , , , .


  Impact of European integration in its member

Impact of European integration in its member



EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE


FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENES



BUSINESS DEPARTMENT



COURSE; EUROPEAN AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION



ASSIGNMENT


Submitted to; ERHAN ERCIN






You can contact me to: maradona@rambler.ru




Name: Makhsut


Surname: Zulufov


Number: 21-4295


Date: 10.06.2006





EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE



FACULTY OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC SCIENCES




BUSINESS DEPARTMENT






IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION IN ITS MEMBER STATES




Prepared By:

MAKHSUT ZULUFOV


June 2006











HOME IS WHERE THE HEART IS

BUSINESS IS WHERE THE BRAIN IS

OFFICE IS WHERE THE USER IS

VALUE IS WHERE THE INFORMATION IS
















[*]









SYNOPSIS



This project does cover the topic of European Union by including the starting up of EU with its original three countries and bringing a concept of Benelux that combined from the initial letters of Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.


The map of the world has changed as European Nations decided to come together and found a common ground while they were in process. EU bloc has became one of the leading bloc and it says the role of those nations changed and nations eliminated barriers and established one concept of Single Market and Euro region which is region of transnational change on its continent.


Also this project covers main advantages and disadvantages of such union by giving a chance to European countries to have access to this entity. The aim is to achieve unanimity in all terms. However, they have not achieved last and further stage.

















CONTENTS


Synopsis ...4


Introduction ..6

EU and its impact on its member state. ..7


Brief information of history.9


Rationality on eastward enlargement and candidacy of Turkey.. 10


Single Market.12

Stages of Economic Integration......13


Single European Act 1986......15


Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on EU)..15


Relation of Turkey and EU16


Disadvantages of European Union.17


Advantages of European Union.18


Demographic problem21

Conclusion..23


Bibliography...24


INTRODUCTION





After World War II, showed the need to unify the people of Europe in a way that would minimize, but not destroy, national patriotism that was felt to be a cause of both World Wars. European countries realized that establishment of strong relationship is necessary for avoiding of a conflict and not to repeat it, which was in 1939-45. In this project I would like to express how European nations integrating on the continent or in other word a big peninsula of Europe, where 25 countries are united and became highly interdependent on each other because of Economic Union (Integration), which is the last and achieved stage (level) of integration, by excluding Political Union.

In recent years the European Community has initiated structural changes such as the Single Market, which proceeded by Free Trade Area and Custom Union. However, world has witnessed more rapid and dramatic changes in Euro zone.

To bring out one more international currency of (Euro), European countries have put too much of efforts which was really hard job. European countries have signed main several Treaties for establishment of Economic Integration.

First Treaty of EEC was Treaty of Paris, which set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), this Treaty was signed by six countries (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, West Germany, and Italy.)

The same six countries signed the Treaty of Rome, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), better known as the Common Market. And later, these countries signed Single European Act (SEA). And last stage is Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) which is the Maastricht Treaty. These Treaties have contributed to make such transnational change on the continent of Europe. As well as, international entity, which is European Union, has some advantages and disadvantages.





EU and its impact on its member states



The European Union (EU) is a unique endeavor involving economic and political integration in the world today. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth, which in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. Physically and geologically, Europe is a subcontinent or large peninsula, forming the western most part of Eurasia and west of Asia. The European Union has 25 member states, an area of 3,892,685 km² and approximately 460 million inhabitants as of December 2004. The European Union's member states combined represent the world's largest economy by GDP, the seventh largest territory in the world by area and the third largest by population. The EU describes itself as an "a family of democratic European countries" though the extent of "European" has been a matter of debate, especially in relation to the possibility of the accession of Turkey.

The main focus is on the Common Market and Monetary Union aspects of the European story. The Common Market has of course evolved and is evolving both in terms of membership and scope. The key developments were the Single European Act of 1986, the Maastricht Treaty on European Union of 1992 and the Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997. The Single Act set the community the basic task of completing the creation of Single European Market. The Maastricht Treaty transformed the relationship in a variety of ways.

First, the European Economic Community is now referred to as the European Community since it covers social and cultural as well as economic matters. Second, the process of economic integration has now been pointed towards the ultimate destination of Economic and Monetary Union. Third, the whole complex of relationships has been given the title of the European Union. The Unions task is not only economic, social and cultural integration; it also takes in the Common Foreign and Security Policy and what is now called Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters. In short, integration has spilled over from economic to broadly political affairs.

Economic Integration is a term used to describe how different aspects between economies are integrated. The basics of this theory were written by the Hungarian Economist Bela Balassa in the 1960s. As economic integration increases, the barriers of trade between markets diminish. The most integrated economy today, between independent nations, is the European Union and its Euro zone.

European Integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European (and some peripheral) states into a tighter bloc. The main and most powerful body of European Integration is European Union, (European Union is an intergovernmental and supranational union of 25 democratic member states from the European Continent. *



A basic tension exists within the European Union between intergovernmentalism and supranationalism. Intergovernmentalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations where power is possessed by the member states and decisions are made by unanimity. Independent appointees of the governments or elected representatives have solely advisory or implementation functions. Intergovernmentalism is used by most international organizations today. An alternative method of decision-making in international organizations is supranationalism. In supranationalism power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. Member state governments still have power, but they must share this power with other actors. Furthermore, decisions are made by majority votes; hence it is possible for a member-state to be forced by the other member-states to implement a decision against its will.

Some forces in European Union politics favor the intergovernmental approach, while others favor the supranational path. Supporters of supranationalism argue that it allows integration to proceed at a faster pace than would otherwise be possible. Where decisions must be made by governments acting unanimously, decisions can take years to make, if they are ever made. Supporters of intergovernmentalism argue that supra-nationalism is a threat to national sovereignty, and to democracy, claiming that only national governments can possess the necessary democratic legitimacy. Intergovernmentalism is being favoured by more Eurosceptic nations such as the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden; while more integrationist nations such as the Benelux countries, France, Germany, and Italy have tended to prefer the supranational approach. The European Union attempts to strike a balance between the two approaches. This balance however is complex, resulting in the often labyrinthine complexity of its decision-making procedures. Supranationalism is closely related to the inter-governmentalist vs. neofunctionalist debate. This is a debate concerning why the process of integration has taken place at all. Intergovernmentalists argue that the process of EU integration is a result of tough bargaining between states. Neofunctionalism, on the other hand, argues that the supranational institutions themselves have been a driving force behind integration. **


The EU was established under that name in 1992 by the Treaty on EU (Maastricht Treaty)). Through other institutions like Council of Europe also integrate their members states. The regions of Europe are integrated into larger Euro regions. (A Euro region is a form of transnational co-operation structure between two or more territories located in different European countries.)

Euro regions usually do not correspond to any legislative or governmental institution, do not have political power and their wok is limited to the competences of the local and regional authorities which constitute them. They are usually arranged to promote common interests across the border and cooperate for the common good of the border and cooperate for the common good of the border populations. Even though the Council of Europe sponsored term euro region means a similar thing, it should not be confused with the European Union sponsored term regions in Europe.

The European Union created regions of Europe as the layer of EU government administration directly below the nation-state level

Regions of Europe are represented by the Committee of the Regions headquarters in Brussels.

Reasons for this include;

  • Reflecting the historic and cultural claims for autonomy in many regions all over the EU
  • Strengthening the political and economic situation in those regions.


* #"#" title=Benelux>Benelux countries. This was accomplished by the Treaty of Paris, signed in April, 1951, and taking effect in July, 1952. **

On 25March 1957 the governments of France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg signed the Rome Treaty and implemented on 1 January 1958. In so doing they agreed to create what came to be known as the Common Market or, more accurately, the European Economic Community. That institution has remained the movement towards closer union and economic integration in Europe. It was course accompanied by the creation of Euratom and had indeed been preceded by the European Coal and Steel Community of 1951. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) established with the pooling of production and consumption of coal and steel. And the on the same day the same six countries signed Treaty of Rome, establishing European Economic Community (EEC )in 1957). EEC better known as The Common Market, and the EURATOM Treaty (European Atomic Energy Community), designed to promote and supervise the development for peaceful uses of nuclear and atomic energy, which was recognised as an essential resource. In 1973 the UK, Denmark and Ireland joined the origial six countries, followed by Greeced in 1981and then in 1986, by Spain and Portugal. In 1990 the reunion of East and West Germany was achieved, which effectively added another state to community. On 1st January 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined to make a European Community of 15. *

After that EU was going on the way of enlarging in zone, population, economy and rest of all aspects, by giving access to other countries to apply for access to become a member of EU. On 1st January 2001 European Union become more in number after ten new states joined to EU entity, and in present time EU includes 25 states with new ten members; (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia). However, by 1st January 2007 two new states will be joining to EU like Bulgaria and Romania.

Context rationale for enlargement and future prospects


Supporters of the European Union argue that the growth of the EU is a force for peace and democracy. They argue that the wars which were a periodic feature of the history of Western Europe have ceased since the formation of the European Economic Community (which later became the EU) in the 1950s. They also claim that in the early 1970s, Greece, Portugal and Spain were all dictatorships, but the desire of the business communities in these three countries to be in the EU created a strong impetus for democracy there. Others argue that peace in Europe since World War II is more due to other causes, such as the need for a unified response to the threat from the Soviet Union, a need for reconstruction after World War II, and a collective temporary tiring of waging war, and that the dictatorships cited came to an end for totally different reasons. In more recent times, the European Union has been extending its influence to the east. It has accepted several new members that were previously behind the Iron Curtain, and has plans to accept several more in the medium-term. It is hoped that in a similar fashion to the entry of Spain, Portugal and Greece in the 1980s, membership for these states will help cement economic and political stability. As the EU continues to enlarge eastward, the candidate countries' accessions tend to grow more controversial. As previously explained, the EU has finished accession talks with Bulgaria and Romania, and set an entry date for the two countries in 2007. However, the rejection of the EU Constitution by France and the Netherlands, and the EU's slow economic growth, have cast some doubt on whether the EU will be ready to accept new members after 2007, when Romania and Bulgaria are set to join EU (in early 2005 they signed the Accession Treaty). A further point of contention for EU members is the accession of Turkey.

Accession preliminary talks between Turkey and the EU began in early October 2005. Turkey's Government, led by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, has enacted many legal reforms to meet the EU's entry requirements. However, some member states, especially Austria, repudiate Turkey joining the EU, and the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications that may bring. It is also noted that the vast majority of Turkey's territory lies outside of what is commonly considered the continent of Europe.

: 1, 2, 3


?

doc
pdf
djvu
fb2
chm
txt